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Xu Guangyu:Nuclear Transparency(2)
Time:2013-05-11 19:07         Author:Xu Guangyu         Source:军控协会,
. Military nuclear transparency
As to the nine nuclear powers, nuclear arms have actually been evolved as a strategy tool to maintain the nuclear deterrence with other non-nuclear countries. To prevent the risk of nuclear conflicts causing by misjudgments due to the lack of the necessary mutual trust, maintaining a certain degree of nuclear transparency has become a common strategic need for relevant countries.
The military nuclear transparency relates to nuclear transparency in the filed of military, including the necessary openness of nuclear policy, nuclear strategy development, nuclear arms construction and nuclear weapon using.
Nuclear weapon has been considered as WMD, and nuclear war has been condemned by the world. Since 1968, the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty has been gradually accepted and signed by vast majority of countries. Any non-nuclear weapon state who wants to secretly research and develop nuclear weapons in a non-transparent way will bring great impacts on regional and global strategy balance. This will also cause the worries, vigilance and opposition from other countries.
As to the nine nuclear powers, nuclear arms have actually been evolved as a strategy tool to maintain the nuclear deterrence with other non-nuclear countries. To prevent the risk of nuclear conflicts causing by misjudgments due to the lack of the necessary mutual trust, maintaining a certain degree of nuclear transparency has become a common strategic need for relevant countries.
1. Nuclear policy level
 Having a transparent nuclear policy choice is the first step of nuclear transparency. That means having an open attitude on the nuclear arms trade-offs. This is particularly important after the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty came into force. The current five permanent member of UN Security Council have publicly owned nuclear weapons before the treaty became effective. Considering the tremendous power and strategic role the nuclear weapons demonstrated in the end of World War, this five countries publicly selected nuclear arms as a necessary strategic deterrence and a balance of power in order to break the nuclear monopoly, reduce the risk of unilateral control of nuclear weapon, and maintain the international strategic balance. But as the nuclear arsenals of the Unite States and the Soviet Union expanded rapidly, things began to go into reverse. The bearing capacity of nuclear weapons and nuclear wars began to fall gradually. So the nuclear arms control and disarmament and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons have been accepted by vast majority of countries.
With the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty coming into force and the nuclear-free zone increasing, the space for non-nuclear weapon states officially pursuing nuclear weapons have been very limited. Abjuring nuclear weapons will naturally be welcomed by the international community. The following are some examples. The Qaddafi Libya which had braved the risk of trying to develop and possess the nuclear weapons abandoned its nuclear weapons policy publicly under the international pressure. But the North Korea publicly announced the pursuit of nuclear weapons for self-defense and used it as a diplomatic leverage. Such behavior helps North Korea to draw international community’s attention, but it also put North Korea in a very passive status. Although Japan is forced to declare that it will continue to comply with the Three Non-nuclear Principle, there are tough voices at home about possessing nuclear weapons. However, such voices can be hardly accepted by neither the Japanese nor the international community. Iran insists on the right of peacefully using nuclear power. It has repeatedly claimed that it would not develop nuclear weapons. However it cannot be trusted because of lacking of nuclear transparency. All these examples are related to the national nuclear policy transparency.
As to the nine counties who are universally recognized to own nuclear weapons, except Israel holding the vague policy namely neither to approve nor to disapprove, all the other eight countries clearly show that they have nuclear weapons. Though DPRK cannot be officially regarded as one owning nuclear military system, it has clear policy orientation. (军控协会)