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Xu Guangyu:Nuclear Transparency(3)
Time:2013-05-11 19:07         Author:Xu Guangyu         Source:军控协会,
The transparency of nuclear strategy at least has two advantages: one is that it can enable the international community to know the nuclear armament policies of those countries so as to make preparation and defense for that. The other one is that it can let those countries be constrained and supervised by the international community. Especially after the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty has taken effective for many years and accepted by most countries in the world, transparency of nuclear weapons can pose great influence. It can be said that transparency of nuclear weapons is one of the premise in the implementation of this treaty.
Transparency in nuclear strategy
Transparency of nuclear strategy means that all nuclear states should timely reveal their national nuclear strategy intention, the policy and current situation of nuclear armament capability construction, and the application principles and methods of the related nuclear power and so on to the international community. It means to show their sincerity in obeying the treaties and agreements concerning nuclear armament control as well as nuclear disarmament by revealing their nuclear strategy intention and practical ability to the international community and especially their potential opponents so as to eradicate suspicion, to enhance mutual trust and keep balance.
The nuclear strategy enjoys a comparatively high transparency due to fewer worries of those nuclear states. Their difference doesn’t lie in how much transparent it is, but on the strategic thoughts and strategic means. Just like the super nuclear power, America has always announced to the public that it will not give up striking first to gain the initiative in nuclear strikes and will not promise not to take initiative to use nuclear weapons. They tend to pursue nuclear superiority and make the most of deterrent force brought by nuclear advantage to promote their military strategy in offensive geographical expansion, military interference and foreign operations. Unlike the United States, other unclear countries take a low-profile stance. Most of them declare to hold the defensive nuclear deterrence strategy and take full advantage of their limited capability in nuclear counterattacks.
⒊Transparency in nuclear armament
The Transparence of nuclear arms is mainly reflected in whether the nuclear states voluntary disclosure the species, the number, the quality of nuclear weapons, and the full numbers, varieties, quality of the related transportation vehicles, and deployment condition in the domestic and other areas etc. The moderate transparency of nuclear arms is directly conducive to enhancing mutual trust among those nuclear countries. It not only has the positive significance to inhibit the nuclear arms race, but also works as the necessary premise in promoting nuclear arms control and disarmament.
Due to the important role nuclear arms playing in a country's military strategy, and the different national situations, the nuclear arms transparency can be distinctive. Especially as for the relatively weak countries, considering the cost and asymmetric strategy, they usually tend to take their nuclear deterrent forces to the largest play with the minimum nuclear power. Therefore, they often take a vague policy toward the outside world in choosing nuclear arms scale and specific varieties. Usually, they would like to emphasize the quality of nuclear weapons, blur their number, highlight the deterrence, and hid their technology and even completely conceal information when declaring to the outside world. For example, Israel has kept fuzzy policy, and remained opaque in whether they own nuclear weapons, and kept secret in how many nuclear weapons does it have. However, this situation is on the contrary as to those super nuclear countries.
Nuclear arms usually can be used as an important means to improve the deterrence and strategic position of superpowers, so they keep an open attitude and even take advertising policy in terms of nuclear transparency, lest other countries particularly their potential rivals ignore its superpower and nuclear sensitiveness. For example, during the former Soviet Union, Khrushchev openly declared to the United States of America and the whole world that the Soviet Union has tons of class a thermonuclear bomb at that time. After the end of the cold war, as the one and only military power in the world, America regarded himself as a necessary world police. It showed off its own nuclear arms deterrence to the outside, and vowed to further improve the accuracy and reliability of nuclear attack, and penetration ability. Besides, it also actively wooed its European allies and Asian allies to deploy the guide system in order to weaken nuclear attack, and nuclear counterattack capability of their potential opponents. (军控协会)